The Walkhampton Enclosure (Devon), Rosamund Faith and Andrew Fleming

The history of viticulture has been widely studied in Europe. Knowledge of the landscape history of the viticulture once widely practised on terraced slopes is lacking, however. This paper contains an outline of the history of such vineyards. The forces driving the terracing of steep slopes are discussed, as are the advantages of building terraces and of using dry stone walls as retaining structures. The building fabric of historic terraced vineyards located in south-western Germany and in the Swiss canton of Valais was analysed employing a historical landscape analysis. The construction and function of the different elements of the vineyards, and their interactions, were a particular focus. Also presented are insights into how the building fabric may provide indications as to the owners and the construction history of such winegrowing areas. Finally, strategies for the preservation of these terraced vineyards, which are of great value from both a nature and a heritage conservation perspective, are presented, as are the benefits of continued research.

 

A seventeenth-century Warwickshire Estate Map, Colin Hayfield and Andrew Watkins

Hall sites are a common feature in the Tame-Cole-Blythe-Bourne valleys in the northern part of the ‘Forest’ of Arden (Warwickshire). Often they are first recorded in the late sixteenth or early seventeenth centuries and lie either very close to or immediately adjacent to parish boundaries. A map of Holt Hall farm, Over Whitacre, from 1688, along with surviving documentary evidence, allows for a detailed exploration of how such a site might have evolved from the medieval period to the early eighteenth century. The article examines the social and economic context of the Arden pays and the evolution of landscape of the parish against the background of piecemeal  enclosure and emergence of economic individualism amongst the peasantry. It then considers and evaluates the various processes which may have led to the development of the Holt Hall estate depicted in the 1688 map.

 

Typological variation in pre-modern settlement morphology in the Clashindarroch Forest, Aberdeenshire, Colin Shepherd

An extensive area of relict field systems and settlements survive within the Clasindarroch Forest, managed by Forestry Commission Scotland. This paper considers certain typological distinctions between a number of the settlement complexes and suggests the existence of a type of enclosed and lightly defended farmstead complex not formerly suspected in the area.

 

Topographical art and landscape history: Elizabeth Fanshawe (1779–1856) in early nineteenth-century Liguria, Pietro Piana, Ross Balzaretti, Diego Moreno and Charles Watkins

This paper considers the value of amateur topographical art of the early nineteenth century as a source, combined with fieldwork, for the understanding of past landscapes and environments of the Ligurian Apennines. Political and social changes following the Congress of Vienna (1815) enabled the number

of English travelling to Italy to increase dramatically. The enormous popularity of artists and poets such as J. M. W. Turner and Lord Byron further encouraged the growth of visitors. In this paper we consider the work of a recently re-discovered amateur artist Elizabeth Fanshawe (1779–1856) who travelled to Italy 1829–31 with her two sisters Catherine and Penelope. We examine their social and political milieu and examine their great interest in art which ranged from old masters to modern art and their own drawings. We focus on six of Elizabeth Fanshawe’s topographical drawings and identify problems around the identification of the views depicted and the potential value of the drawings as sources for understanding past landscapes. Other sources used include fieldwork, oral history, local archives and historical maps. The paper demonstrates that the drawings have considerable value in identifying and locating past management practices, including grazing, the cultivation of olives and chestnuts, and the

rapid development network of new roads which helped to establish the Kingdom of Sardinia after 1815. The paper demonstrates that amateur topographical art is a valuable source for landscape history.

 

The South Oxfordshire Project: perceptions of landscape, settlement and society, c. 500–1650, Stephen Mileson

Historians and archaeologists are increasingly interested in moving beyond landscape reconstruction and economics to investigate how past inhabitants perceived their environment. This reflects the subject’s intrinsic interest and an awareness of the importance of decisions made by ordinary people in shaping the development of the countryside. However, the evidence available makes it difficult to uncover mentalities and attitudes. To date, most attention has been paid to particular features which seem to say most about self-perception and beliefs, but the greatest advances will arguably be made by studying the landscape as a whole. This article explains the approach to popular perceptions being adopted by ‘The South Oxfordshire Project’, an interdisciplinary analysis of fourteen parishes encompassing lowland clay vales and Chilterns wood-pasture from the early Middle Ages to the mid seventeenth century.

 

Reviews

David Schuyler, Sanctified Landscapes. Writers, artists, and the Hudson River Valley, 1820–1909 (Della Hooke)

E. V. Bunške, I. Sture and O. Nikodemus (eds), Living in Landscapes: knowledge, practice, imagination (Della Hooke)

Christopher Jessel, A Legal History of the English Landscape (Angus Winchester)

F. H. A. Aalen, Kevin Whelan and Matthew Stout (eds), Atlas of the Irish Rural Landscape (Mark Gardiner)

Jodie Lewis (ed.), The Archaeology of Mendip (Martyn Barber)

Phil Newman, The Field Archaeology of Dartmoor (Andrew Fleming)

Andrew Cooper (ed.), Lough Swilly. A living landscape (Anthony Robinson)

Rebecca H. Jones, Roman Camps in Scotland (Anna Walas)

Roseanne Schot, Conor Newman and Edel Bhreathnach (eds), Landscapes of Cult and Kingship (Margaret Faull)

Nicholas J. Higham and Martin J. Ryan (eds), Place-Names, Landscape and the Anglo-Saxon Landscape (Richard Coates)

Neil Christie and Paul Stamper (eds), Medieval Rural Settlement. Britain and Ireland, AD 800-1600 (Andrew Rogerson)

Sam Turner and Bob Silvester (eds), Life in Medieval Landscapes. People and places in the Middle Ages (David Stephenson)

Arthur MacGregor, Animal Encounters. Human and animal interaction in Britain from the Norman Conquest to World War One (Bob Silvester)

Paul Everson and David Stocker, Custodians of Continuity? The Premonstratensian abbey at Barlings and the landscape of ritual (James Bond)

P. S. Barnwell and Brian K. Roberts (eds), Britons, Saxons, and Scandinavians. The historical geography of Glanville R. J. Jones (Christopher Dyer)

S. Wrathmell (ed.), A History of Wharram Percy and its Neighbours (Paul Stamper)

V.R. Bainbridge (ed.), The Victoria History of the Counties of England: A History of Wiltshire, Volume XVIII: Cricklade and environs (Simon Draper)

Alan Thacker and Elizabeth Williamson (eds), The Victoria History of the Counties of England: A History of the county of Oxford, Volume XVI: Henley-on-Thames and environs (Roger Thomas)

Christopher Dyer, A Country Merchant, 1495-1520. Trading and farming at the end of the Middle Ages (David Hey)

Alexandra Walsham, The Reformation of the Landscape. Religion, Identity and Memory in Early Modern Britain and Ireland (Paul Everson)

Richard W. Hoyle (ed.), Custom, Improvement and the Landscape of Early Modern Britain (Ian Whyte)

Lindsey Porter, The Duke’s Manor. Georgian Hartington and Buxton under the Dukes of Devonshire (Brian Rich)

John Sheail, Nature’s Spectacle. The World’s first national parks and protected places (Margaret Faull)

 

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Volume 33 (2012) Issue 2